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Horseshoe crabs are used as bait to fish for eels (mostly in the United States) and whelk, or conch. Nearly 1 million (1,000,000) crabs a year are harvested for bait in the United States, dwarfing the biomedical mortality. However, fishing with horseshoe crab was banned indefinitely in New Jersey in 2008 with a moratorium on harvesting to protect the red knot, a shorebird which eats the crab's eggs. A moratorium was restricted to male crabs in Delaware, and a permanent moratorium is in effect in South Carolina. The eggs are eaten in parts of Southeast Asia, Johor and China.
The use of colour light therapy in animals to treat diseases and disorders is increasingly common but only very little research has been conducted on the effects of coloured light on animals. Existing studies most often used animal models for human therapy, e.g. on wound healing [1Adamskaya N, Dungel P, Mittermayr R, et al. Light therapy by blue LED improves wound healing in an excision model in rats. Injury 2011; 42(9): 917-21.[ ] [PMID: 22081819] , 2Whinfield AL, Aitkenhead I. The light revival: does phototherapy promote wound healing A review. The Foot 2009; 19(2): 117-24.[ ] [PMID: 20307462] ], osteoarthritis [3Oshima Y, Coutts RD, Badlani NM, Healey RM, Kubo T, Amiel D. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy on the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in a rabbit model. Biomed Pharmacother 2011; 65(3): 224-9.[ ] [PMID: 21658899] ], motor function following embolic strokes [4Lapchak PA, Salgado KF, Chao CH, Zivin JA. Transcranial near-infrared light therapy improves motor function following embolic strokes in rabbits: an extended therapeutic window study using continuous and pulse frequency delivery modes. Neuroscience 2007; 148(4): 907-14.[ ] [PMID: 17693028] ], depression [5Kronfeld-Schor N, Einat H. Circadian rhythms and depression: human psychopathology and animal models. Neuropharmacology 2012; 62(1): 101-14.[ ] [PMID: 21871466] ] or diabetes [6Lim J, Sanders RA, Snyder AC, Eells JT, Henshel DS, Watkins JB III. Effects of low-level light therapy on streptozotocin-induced diabetic kidney. J Photochem Photobiol B 2010; 99(2): 105-10.], however studies on the effectiveness of colour light therapy exist neither for horses nor other animals. Nevertheless, various forms of practical therapy applications are prevalently used in horses and other domestic animals as an alternative treatment method for disorders or diseases, e.g. dyspepsia, infections, abscesses, hematomata, arthritis, laminitis, muscle pain or nervousness [7Mahlstedt D. Farblichttherapie für Pferde, Praxis der Farbpunktur. 1st ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Sonntag Verlag, Medizinverlage Stuttgart GmbH and Co. KG 2004.]. After a diagnosis, the type of illumination, the choice of colour or colour combination and the duration of illumination are determined by a colour light therapist. Frequently applied types of application are selective irradiation of acupuncture points [8Mandel P. Praktisches Handbuch der Farbpunktur. 6th ed. Bruchsal, Germany: Energetik-Verlag 1995.], partial irradiation on certain body areas [9Sonnenschmidt R. Farb- und Musiktherapie für Tiere. 1st ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Sonntag Verlag 2000.] and total body exposure or room illumination for a holistic effect on the body. Recommendations on treatment durations vary from 10 to 20 minutes, sometimes repeated several times per day [9Sonnenschmidt R. Farb- und Musiktherapie für Tiere. 1st ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Sonntag Verlag 2000., 10Muths C. Farbtherapie: Mit Farben heilen, der sanfte Weg zur Gesundheit. 6th ed. Munich, Germany: Wilhelm Heyne Verlag GmbH and Co. KG 1989.]. Often specific therapy lamps (Bioptron, Q.Light) are used, whereas the usage of LED light provides an alternative which is also utilised in human medicine [11Barolet D. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in dermatology. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2008; 27(4): 227-38.[ ] [PMID: 19150294] , 12Glickman G, Byrne B, Pineda C, Hauck WW, Brainard GC. Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder with blue narrow-band light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Biol Psychiatry 2006; 59(6): 502-7.[ ] [PMID: 16165105] ]. 153554b96e