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Nanotechnology is shown to bridge the barrier of biological and physical sciences by applying nanostructures and nanophases at various fields of science ; specially in nanomedicine and nano based drug delivery systems, where such particles are of major interest [12, 13]. Nanomaterials can be well-defined as a material with sizes ranged between 1 and 100 nm, which influences the frontiers of nanomedicine starting from biosensors, microfluidics, drug delivery, and microarray tests to tissue engineering [14,15,16]. Nanotechnology employs curative agents at the nanoscale level to develop nanomedicines. The field of biomedicine comprising nanobiotechnology, drug delivery, biosensors, and tissue engineering has been powered by nanoparticles . As nanoparticles comprise materials designed at the atomic or molecular level, they are usually small sized nanospheres . Hence, they can move more freely in the human body as compared to bigger materials. Nanoscale sized particles exhibit unique structural, chemical, mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and biological properties. Nanomedicines have become well appreciated in recent times due to the fact that nanostructures could be utilized as delivery agents by encapsulating drugs or attaching therapeutic drugs and deliver them to target tissues more precisely with a controlled release [10, 19]. Nanomedicine, is an emerging field implementing the use of knowledge and techniques of nanoscience in medical biology and disease prevention and remediation. It implicates the utilization of nanodimensional materials including nanorobots, nanosensors for diagnosis, delivery, and sensory purposes, and actuate materials in live cells (Fig. 1). For example, a nanoparticle-based method has been developed which combined both the treatment and imaging modalities of cancer diagnosis . The very first generation of nanoparticle-based therapy included lipid systems like liposomes and micelles, which are now FDA-approved . These liposomes and micelles can contain inorganic nanoparticles like gold or magnetic nanoparticles . These properties let to an increase in the use of inorganic nanoparticles with an emphasis on drug delivery, imaging and therapeutics functions. In addition, nanostructures reportedly aid in preventing drugs from being tarnished in the gastrointestinal region and help the delivery of sparingly water-soluble drugs to their target location. Nanodrugs show higher oral bioavailability because they exhibit typical uptake mechanisms of absorptive endocytosis.
Metallic, organic, inorganic and polymeric nanostructures, including dendrimers, micelles, and liposomes are frequently considered in designing the target-specific drug delivery systems. In particular, those drugs having poor solubility with less absorption ability are tagged with these nanoparticles [17, 29]. However, the efficacy of these nanostructures as drug delivery vehicles varies depending on the size, shape, and other inherent biophysical/chemical characteristics. For instance, polymeric nanomaterials with diameters ranging from 10 to 1000 nm, exhibit characteristics ideal for an efficient delivery vehicle . Because of their high biocompatibility and biodegradability properties, various synthetic polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, poly-l-lactic acid, polyethylene glycol, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and natural polymers, such as alginate and chitosan, are extensively used in the nanofabrication of nanoparticles [8, 30,31,32]. Polymeric nanoparticles can be categorized into nanospheres and nanocapsules both of which are excellent drug delivery systems. Likewise, compact lipid nanostructures and phospholipids including liposomes and micelles are very useful in targeted drug delivery.
The use of ideal nano-drug delivery system is decided primarily based on the biophysical and biochemical properties of the targeted drugs being selected for the treatment . However, problems such as toxicity exhibited by nanoparticles cannot be ignored when considering the use of nanomedicine. More recently, nanoparticles have mostly been used in combination with natural products to lower the toxicity issues. The green chemistry route of designing nanoparticles loaded with drugs is widely encouraged as it minimises the hazardous constituents in the biosynthetic process. Thus, using green nanoparticles for drug delivery can lessen the side-effects of the medications . Moreover, adjustments in nanostructures size, shape, hydrophobicity, and surface changes can further enhance the bioactivity of these nanomaterials.
Lignocellulosic feedstocks are composed of mainly cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash consisting of inorganic minerals. Production of cellulosic ethanol via biological conversion consists of three critical steps: pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis of sugar polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose etc.) to sugar monomers and fermentation of sugar monomers to ethanol. A generic cellulosic ethanol production process is shown in Figure 1. Hydrolysis of sugar polymers can be achieved chemically by using acid or biologically using enzymes. Enzymatic hydrolysis is favored over acid hydrolysis due to lower energy consumption (natural gas, electricity), mild operating conditions, high sugar yields, and lower capital and maintenance cost of equipment [6, 7]. However, in the case of lignocellulosic biomass, recalcitrant and heterogeneous structure of the biomass poses a fundamental challenge to depolymerization of cellulose during the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Enzyme accessibility is restricted by the lignin and hemicellulose and enzymes tend to irreversibly bind to lignin which slows down the process .
Flexible, wearable sensing devices can yield important information about the underlying physiology of a human subject for applications in real-time health and fitness monitoring. Despite significant progress in the fabrication of flexible biosensors that naturally comply with the epidermis, most designs measure only a small number of physical or electrophysiological parameters, and neglect the rich chemical information available from biomarkers. Here, we introduce a skin-worn wearable hybrid sensing system that offers simultaneous real-time monitoring of a biochemical (lactate) and an electrophysiological signal (electrocardiogram), for more comprehensive fitness monitoring than from physical or electrophysiological sensors alone. The two sensing modalities, comprising a three-electrode amperometric lactate biosensor and a bipolar electrocardiogram sensor, are co-fabricated on a flexible substrate and mounted on the skin. Human experiments reveal that physiochemistry and electrophysiology can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk, enabling a new class of hybrid sensing devices.
Sodium aluminate is an inorganic chemical that is used as an effective source of aluminium hydroxide for many industrial and technical applications. Pure sodium aluminate (anhydrous) is a white crystalline solid having a formula variously given as NaAlO2, Na3AlO3, Na[Al(OH)4], Na2O·Al2O3 or Na2Al2O4. Formation of sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate(III) or hydrated sodium aluminate is given by:
Despite potential benefit NEs possess, there are challenges to clinical application. The production of NEs usually involves high temperature and pressure. Therefore, not all starting materials are suitable in NE application. This is one of the obstacles in applying NEs to massive commercial production. In NE preparation, high-energy methods such as homogenizer and microfluidizer are used, which makes NE costlier than other conventional formulation. Because of lack of understanding of chemistry in NE production, detailed research should be conducted about component interaction and NE metabolism in human body to assess the safety in clinical use .
Correspondence to: Prof. B. Mohan Kumar, Arunachal University of Studies, Knowledge City, Namsai 792103, Arunachal Pradesh, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ; email@example.com
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