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In the early, simpler days of online teaching and learning, somewhere in the middle of the 1990s (not including radio or written correspondence courses), the lack of high-speed internet limited communication primarily to text. Online meant only one thing: text-based, asynchronous learning. In asynchronous learning, communication is not happening at the same time or \"live.\" Instead, it is time-delayed through tools such as email, static websites, and forums, albeit sometimes these were supplemented with the random image and some manual emoticons :-). This learning was also openly accessible by default, a fact that got lost somewhere along the way, but we have been finding our open origins again in the last decade. Blended learning emerged in North America as a term to refer to the mix of on-campus/face-to-face learning and online activities. This learning was typically referred to in a consecutive manner: instructional hours were reduced to allow for online interactions, or those online interactions were seen as supplemental to the face-to-face experience. In other parts of the world, such as Australia, hybrid learning was the equivalent term for blended learning, so the two have been synonyms for decades.
The mid-1990s was the last time these terms were comprehended with simplicity. In the late 1990s, as residential internet speed increased along with the sophistication of personal hardware, we also saw the emergence of web-based software that enabled synchronous communication. Interactions could now happen \"live,\" such as via a phone call. Learners were able to gather around a shared online slideshow where disembodied voices could take turns asking questions or sharing commentary. As some online-only courses began to integrate synchronous learning into the asynchronous courses, the term blended online learning later emerged--creating the first layer of semantic confusion.1
New terms emerged in the late 2000s to try to capture the phenomenon of the merging modes. Table 1 presents a matrix to provide an overview of four main terms. Note that this is a \"best effort\" and exceptions may exist.
The HyFlex (hybrid-flexible) model was developed by Brian Beatty in his graduate courses at San Francisco State University and introduced at the 2007 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Beatty described the model as a combination of hybrid, which we know as combining both online and face-to-face modalities, and flexible, where \"students may choose whether or not to attend face-to-face sessions.\"3 The specific characteristic here is that the learners have full control of their modality (face-to-face, online synchronous, or online asynchronous), which often is not the case in educational settings where modality is merged. This limits the applicability of the term in that it cannot be applied to courses where synchronous attendance is required. It also cannot be applied to programs where the number of learners who can participate in person or online synchronously is limited or where there is no robust asynchronous option provided at all. HyFlex has gained significant attention beyond the research literature in response to the COVID-19 impact on campuses; however, it is likely that many of the implementations are not, in fact, true HyFlex designs.
Multi-Access learning has been recognized as an overarching framework that can broadly incorporate many different configurations of merging modes. How the configurations differ will ultimately depend on the contexts. Thus, HyFlex is a type of Multi-Access, but Multi-Access is not necessarily HyFlex, due to the fact that HyFlex specifies that the learner has the power to choose any modality. More Multi-Access designs have emerged as well, such as Blended Synchronous and Synchronous Hybrid (see below).
Another term for this same concept, Synchronous Hybrid, first emerged in 2014 as Synchromodal, conceived by John Bell, Sandra Sawaya, and William Cain (University of Michigan). Defined as classes where \"online and face-to-face students interact during shared synchronous sessions,\" the term was rebranded in 2015 at a conference symposium as Synchronous Hybrid, which has since been used in applied studies.6 Like Blended Synchronous, Synchronous Hybrid focuses on merging face-to-face and online synchronous learning environments.
Flipped Learning is often considered a modality-related term, since online time outside of class is implicit in its design, but it is more of a pedagogical approach (and one could argue that reading a book chapter before a class in the 1970s is an example of flipped learning). The term flip emerged in a conference presentation by J. Wesley Baker in 2000 and was later expanded upon by Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams.9 The concept of Flipped Learning, in which content is learned before class through recordings or other resources, was initially designed with face-to-face courses in mind. This pedagogical approach can also be applied in online courses, where the asynchronous time is used for reviewing resources and the synchronous time is used for discussion. Ultimately, this concept is about pedagogy.
Not available in Word for the web. Advanced collaboration features, such as turning on Track Changes and merge, compare, and combine documents, are only available in the Word desktop app. As expected, tracked changes appear in Word for the web while in View mode.
As these states indicate, migrations might fail during snapshots, shard relocations, or force merges. Failures during snapshots or shard relocation are typically due to node failures or S3 connectivity issues. Lack of disk space is usually the underlying cause of force merge failures.
Index migrations to UltraWarm storage require a force merge. Each OpenSearch index is composed of some number of shards, and each shard is composed of some number of Lucene segments. The force merge operation purges documents that were marked for deletion and conserves disk space. By default, UltraWarm merges indexes into one segment.
You can change this value up to 1,000 segments using the index.ultrawarm.migration.force_merge.max_num_segments setting. Higher values speed up the migration process, but increase query latency for the warm index after the migration finishes. To change the setting, make the following request:
Change is the external event or situation that takes place: a new business strategy, a turn of leadership, a merger or a new product. The organization focuses on the desired outcome that the change will produce, which is generally in response to external events. Change can happen very quickly.
A. IP address overlapping refers to a situation where two locations that want to interconnect are both using the same IP address scheme. This is not an unusual occurrence; it often happens when companies merge or are acquired. Without special support, the two locations will not be able to connect and establish sessions. The overlapped IP address can be a public address assigned to another company, a private address assigned to another company, or can come from the range of private addresses as defined in RFC 1918 . 153554b96e