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All of the changes in the Tenth edition were made to further the authors' goal of providing students with a clear and coherent view of the role of government spending and taxation. The authors' years of policy experience have convinced themselves that modern public finance provides a practical and invaluable framework for thinking about policy issues. The goal is simple: to emphasize the links between sound economics and the analysis of real-world policy problems.
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy. It is the branch of economics that assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones. The purview of public finance is considered to be threefold, consisting of governmental effects on:
One of the more traditional subfields of economics, public finance emphasizes the function and role of government in the economy. A region's inhabitants established a formal or informal entity known as the government to carry out a variety of tasks, including providing for social requirements like education and healthcare as well as protecting the populace's private property from outside threats.
The proper role of government provides a starting point for the analysis of public finance. In theory, under certain circumstances, private markets will allocate goods and services among individuals efficiently (in the sense that no waste occurs and that individual tastes are matching with the economy's productive abilities). If private markets were able to provide efficient outcomes and if the distribution of income were socially acceptable, then there would be little or no scope for government. In many cases, however, conditions for private market efficiency are violated. For example, if many people can enjoy the same good (the moment that good was produced and sold, it starts to give its utility to every one for free) at the same time (non-rival, non-excludable consumption), then private markets may supply too little of that good. National defense is one example of non-rival consumption, or of a public good.
Macroeconomic data to support public finance economics are generally referred to as fiscal or government finance statistics (GFS). The Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001) is the internationally accepted methodology for compiling fiscal data. It is consistent with regionally accepted methodologies such as the European System of Accounts 1995 and consistent with the methodology of the System of National Accounts (SNA1993) and broadly in line with its most recent update, the SNA2008.
The GFSM 2001 recommends standard tables including standard fiscal indicators that meet a broad group of users including policy makers, researchers, and investors in sovereign debt.Government finance statistics should offer data for topics such as the fiscal architecture, the measurement of the efficiency and effectiveness of government expenditures, the economics of taxation, and the structure of public financing. The GFSM 2001 provides a blueprint for the compilation, recording, and presentation of revenues, expenditures, stocks of assets, and stocks of liabilities. The GFSM 2001 also defines some indicators of effectiveness in government's expenditures, for example the compensation of employees as a percentage of expense. The GFSM 2001 includes a functional classification of expense as defined by the Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG) .
The microfinance revolution, begun with independent initiatives in Latin America and South Asia starting in the 1970s, has so far allowed 65 million poor people around the world to receive small loans without collateral, build up assets, and buy insurance. This comprehensive survey of microfinance seeks to bridge the gap in the existing literature on microfinance between academic economists and practitioners. Both authors have pursued the subject not only in academia but in the field; Beatriz Armendáriz de Aghion founded a microfinance bank in Chiapas, Mexico, and Jonathan Morduch has done fieldwork in Bangladesh, China, and Indonesia. The authors move beyond the usual theoretical focus in the microfinance literature and draw on new developments in theories of contracts and incentives. They challenge conventional assumptions about how poor households save and build assets and how institutions can overcome market failures. The book provides an overview of microfinance by addressing a range of issues, including lessons from informal markets, savings and insurance, the role of women, the place of subsidies, impact measurement, and management incentives. It integrates theory with empirical data, citing studies from Asia, Africa, and Latin America and introducing ideas about asymmetric information, principal-agent theory, and household decision making in the context of microfinance. The Economics of Microfinance can be used by students in economics, public policy, and development studies. Mathematical notation is used to clarify some arguments, but the main points can be grasped without the math. Each chapter ends with analytically challenging exercises for advanced economics students.
This title, first published in 1970, provides a comprehensive account of the public finance system in Britain. As well as providing a concise outline of the monetary system as a basis for the realistic understanding of public finance, the author also describes the pattern of government expenditure and revenue in the twentieth-century and goes on to give a detailed account of the taxation system up until April 1969. This title will be of interest to students of monetary economics.
In modern times, when the state has to incur sizable capital expenditures for undertaking infrastructure and other highly capital-intensive projects, it would be inconsistent with the Islamic norms of justice to rely on taxation alone to finance such expenditures. Considerations of intergenerational equity require that the state should tap other sources for meeting a part of such expenditures. Modern juristic opinion therefore regards government borrowing for such purposes as having adequate justification. 36/ It is recognized, however, that borrowing can provide substantial resources to the state only if people are motivated to provide qard hasna (interest free loan) in larger common interests. In the event of lack of adequate voluntary response, it is considered Islamically permissible to allow certain tax concessions, as an incentive, to those who subscribe to government loans. 37/ Possibility also exists of mobilizing resources for certain public sector projects on the basis of musharakah (profit/loss sharing) and other Islamically permissible modes of financing. 38/
The Islamic fiscal system is an integral component of the overall economic system whose parameters are laid down by the basic teachings of Islam. It is a typical feature of Islamic teachings that strictly mandatory elements are kept to a minimum while man is left free to find suitable solutions to the emerging problems through a process of institutionalized thinking which keeps the spirit of Islam alive. This paper outlines the general framework of public finance and fiscal policy relevant to our age which emerges from Islamic teachings. It also analyzes the implications of the Islamic fiscal system for growth, monetary stability, resource allocation, and pattern of income distribution. 2b1af7f3a8