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Several variants of SPSS Statistics exist. SPSS Statistics Gradpacks are highly discounted versions sold only to students. SPSS Statistics Server is a version of SPSS Statistics with a client/server architecture. Add-on packages can enhance the base software with additional features (examples include complex samples which can adjust for clustered and stratified samples, and custom tables which can create publication-ready tables). SPSS Statistics is available under either an annual or a monthly subscription license.
SPSS Statistics launched version 25 on Aug 08, 2017. SPSS v25 adds new and advanced statistics, such as random effects solution results (GENLINMIXED), robust standard errors (GLM/UNIANOVA), and profile plots with error bars within the Advanced Statistics and Custom Tables add-on. V25 also includes new Bayesian Statistics capabilities, a method of statistical inference and publication ready charts, such as powerful new charting capabilities, including new default templates and the ability to share with Microsoft Office applications.
SPSS was released in its first version in 1968 as the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) after being developed by Norman H. Nie, Dale H. Bent, and C. Hadlai Hull. Those principals incorporated as SPSS Inc. in 1975. Early versions of SPSS Statistics were written in Fortran and designed for batch processing on mainframes, including for example IBM and ICL versions, originally using punched cards for data and program input. A processing run read a command file of SPSS commands and either a raw input file of fixed-format data with a single record type, or a 'getfile' of data saved by a previous run. To save precious computer time an 'edit' run could be done to check command syntax without analysing the data. From version 10 (SPSS-X) in 1983, data files could contain multiple record types.
SPSS Statistics version 13.0 for Mac OS X was not compatible with Intel-based Macintosh computers, due to the Rosetta emulation software causing errors in calculations. SPSS Statistics 15.0 for Windows needed a downloadable hotfix to be installed in order to be compatible with Windows Vista.
From version 16.0, the same version runs under Windows, Mac, and Linux. The graphical user interface is written in Java. The Mac OS version is provided as a Universal binary, making it fully compatible with both PowerPC and Intel-based Mac hardware.
SPSS Inc announced on July 28, 2009 that it was being acquired by IBM for US$1.2 billion. Because of a dispute about ownership of the name "SPSS", between 2009 and 2010, the product was referred to as PASW (Predictive Analytics SoftWare). As of January 2010, it became "SPSS: An IBM Company". Complete transfer of business to IBM was done by October 1, 2010. By that date, SPSS: An IBM Company ceased to exist. IBM SPSS is now fully integrated into the IBM Corporation, and is one of the brands under IBM Software Group's Business Analytics Portfolio, together with IBM Algorithmics, IBM Cognos and IBM OpenPages.
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There are many various scales used to record the pain levels for evaluation of the effectiveness of many endodontic treatments. 5, 6, 27- 29 Although the 4- and 5-point rating scales of pain are used commonly and successfully in a clinical setting because of easy instructions for use, these scales did not have enough sensitivity to record the pain experience of patients. 6 The Numerical Rating Scale for pain evaluation has low sensitivity when compared with the VAS, and in some previous studies, the VAS proved the high sensitivity and positive correlation with treatment effectiveness. The most important advantage of the VAS among the other pain scales was the difference in pain intensity at the two different times showed the actual difference in pain level. 30- 32 The Heft-Parker VAS is a line with the dimension of 170 mm with different distances on the scales to describe the pain of the patient. 6 The VAS is used commonly in oral-facial pain studies; however, this scale confuses patients in selection of right position on the scale because there are no guides for ratings other than the two extremities. 6 Using category word designations on the line of a VAS, the graphic rating scale of Heft and Parker offers more sensitivity than a category scale and is easier to use than a VAS. 6
The dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has a key role in drug addiction susceptibility. In addition to the well-known relationship between cortisol and the HPA axis, other molecules are involved with stress response and could modify the HPA activation, such as the neuropeptide Y (NPY), which has anxiolytic proprieties. There are few studies evaluating the effect of NPY levels on addiction, especially in crack cocaine dependence.
Only few clinical studies have assessed the influence of peripheral NPY levels on addiction to different substances. For instance, Meng et al. found no differences in NPY plasma levels between alcohol-dependent and non-dependent individuals.1717. Meng D, Wu TC, Rao U, North CS, Xiao H, Javors MA, et al. Serum NPY and BNDF response to a behavioral stressor in alcohol-dependent and healthy control participants. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;218:59-67. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have evaluated NPY levels in crack addiction. Variations in NPY levels during drug withdrawal have also not been evaluated, which precludes understanding the influence of NPY on the pathophysiology of addiction. Thus, our aim was to evaluate NPY levels among crack cocaine users during early drug withdrawal to determine their relationship with cortisol levels, time of drug use, days of hospitalization and addiction severity.
The clinical characteristics of the sample are shown in Table 1 . Serum NPY levels at admission and discharge were similar: 3.21 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 2.78-4.32) and 3.40 ng/mL (IQR 3.10-3.90), with p = 0.793. Low levels of NPY at discharge were associated with higher lifetime crack use (p = 0.030; Table 2 ). No influence of recent crack use was detected, although a trend towards association was observed between NPY levels at admission and recent crack use (p = 0.057; Table 2 ). These results indicate that lower NPY levels are associated with crack use. No association was found between days of hospitalization or addiction severity and NPY levels at admission (p = 0.744 and p = 0.065, respectively), discharge (p = 0.719 and p = 0.075, respectively) or delta (p = 0.751 and p = 0.657, respectively) (data not shown).
The present study shows, for the first time, the influence of crack addiction on NPY levels during early withdrawal. These findings were strengthened by the two collection time points, which demonstrated that crack users, even without current drug consumption, could exhibit a disruptive stress response.
Our results indicate that lifetime crack use (years of frequent use) has a negative impact on NPY levels during early withdrawal. These findings suggest that crack use is associated with a putative down-regulation of peripheral NPY levels. This occurs specifically during discharge, when stress and craving could be elevated due to abstinence symptoms.2020. Sinha R, Garcia M, Paliwal P, Kreek MJ, Rounsaville BJ. Stress-induced cocaine craving and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses are predictive of cocaine relapse outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:324-31. This could explain the increase in anxiety symptoms that may lead to early relapse.2121. Kask A, Harro J, Von Hörsten S, Redrobe JP, Dumont Y, Quirion R. The neurocircuitry and receptor subtypes mediating anxiolytic-like effects of neuropeptide Y. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2002;26:259-83. The variation in NPY levels may be affected primarily by drug use, since NPY levels were not associated with psychiatric comorbidities or childhood maltreatment in our sample (Table S1, available as online-only supplementary material).
Withdrawal symptoms have been associated with increased stress response, modifying cortisol levels.2020. Sinha R, Garcia M, Paliwal P, Kreek MJ, Rounsaville BJ. Stress-induced cocaine craving and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses are predictive of cocaine relapse outcomes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:324-31. In this sense, increased salivary cortisol levels have been correlated with short abstinence time and treatment dropout in addicted individuals.22. Sinha R. Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1141:105-30. , 77. Daughters SB, Richards JM, Gorka SM, Sinha R. HPA axis response to psychological stress and treatment retention in residential substance abuse treatment: a prospective study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;105:202-8. NPY levels have been positively correlated with cortisol following acute stress exposure in humans,2525. Morgan CA, Rasmusson AM, Wang S, Hoyt G, Hauger RL, Hazlett G. Neuropeptide-Y, cortisol, and subjective distress in humans exposed to acute stress: Replication and extension of previous report. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52:136-42. and we observed a trend towards association between cortisol and NPY at admission. This specific response could be an attempt to balance the stress mechanism, since NPY has anxiolytic effects. In a homeostatic mechanism, increased NPY levels could aid to reestablish the negative feedback and thus prevent the dysregulation of the HPA axis. In our study, the relationship between cortisol and delta NPY levels suggests that, in crack users, during early withdrawal, there is an increased stress response leading to a physiological increase in cortisol. Nonetheless, during this period a decrease in the variation of NPY levels is also observed, which may indicate little influence of NPY on cortisol levels and on HPA axis regulation. This impaired feedback could be related to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in addictive patients. These findings are supported by Xu et al., who observed a disruptive NPY stress response in substance-dependent individuals regardless of genetic variation.2626. Xu K, Hong KA, Zhou Z, Hauger RL, Goldman D, Sinha R. Genetic modulation of plasma NPY stress response is suppressed in substance abuse: Association with clinical outcomes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:554-64. Furthermore, rat models of cocaine addiction presented lower NPY levels and increased NPY mRNA expression.2727. Freeman WM, Patel KM, Brucklacher RM, Lull ME, Erwin M, Morgan D, et al. Persistent alterations in mesolimbic gene expression with abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:1807-17. , 2828. Goodman JH, Sloviter RS. Cocaine neurotoxicity and altered neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus; a silver degeneration and immunocytochemical study. Brain Res. 1993;616:263-72. NPY infusion in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala was found to reduce behavioral stress and increase social interaction.2323. Silveira Villarroel H, Bompolaki M, Mackay J, Miranda Tapia AP, Michaelson SD, Leitermann RJ, et al. NPY induces stress resilience via down-regulation of Ih in principal neurons of rat basolateral amygdala. J Neurosci. 2018;3528-17. In addition, NPY neutralizes the action of CRH released in the hypothalamus in response to stress, therefore preventing stress effects.2929. Reichmann F, Holzer P. Europe PMC Funders Group Neuropeptide Y: A stressful review. 2016;55:99-109. 2b1af7f3a8